Recently I have won the First prize in line following Robot competition. Later I will upload the video of the event in coming posts. I just modify some points and skipped the complex part.
Now my intentions for this tutorial is that I will only explain what I experienced and what is simple and effective. So here are the contents:. As I have already explained how to make a smart line following Robot so we will not discuss each and everything again.
And We have discussed the components list, What sensor do we need to use for smart and fast line following robot and How motor and H-bridges work. Read these previous tutorials for Component selection and how the code and sensor work in the line following Robot case.
The Proportional Integral and Derivative PID controller is the control algorithm and mostly used in industrial control. The Proportional Response :. The proportional component in PID algorithm is the difference between the set point of the system and the process variable.
Now, this difference is called Error. The Integral Response. Integral in PID is the sum of the error term over the time. If the result is a small error the integral component will increase slowly. Now the integral term will continually increase over the time unless and until the error is going to be zero, so the ultimate effect is driving the Steady-State error towards zero.
The difference between the process variable and the set point is the Steady state error. The Derivative Response:. The derivative is the rate of change of the process variable. This will increase the overall speed.
The accomplishment of this task gives a robot to follow the zigzag path. And this technique was also not reliable for the turns. The efficiency of the PID algorithm is totally based on these three parameters these helps to reach at a mean position much faster. Further, define your sensors as a binary function:.
Use this equation to control the speed of motors. Well here is just the PID understanding.
A PID Controller For Lego Mindstorms Robots
See the post the code will help you to understand more about the concept. Hey, Welcome to the second Tutorial of Line following Robot. As In the previous Tutorial we have just covered the basics and important things for making Line following Robot. As In the previous tutorial I have just explained the best ways to make a line follower instead of choosing wrong components and wasting your time in extra activities we have to make it to the best effective and simplest.
So always choose those things that are less time consuming but Effective. So before moving towards the next must Read the previous Tutorial about Line follower. First Read this Tutorial:. And I named it the modified PID algorithm. I have spent some hours surfing the internet about the PID line following Robots.
And What I found is that there are already too many guides not just guides but a complex PID guides available for making Arduino code. They are not easy to modify according to the robot requirement. I have recommended IR modules sensor for making a line following Robots. The QTR Pololu sensor array will work perfectly good but again I will recommend the separate modules sensor for making line followers.Add the following snippet to your HTML:.
Cool robot that follows black line. Learn and make a line follower robot with PID controller in 2 hours. Read up about this project on. One feature that most rover autonomous robots need is line following. The purpose of this project is to build a line follower robot and get started on learning PID controller in a fun way. The robot function properly with two motors, the Rosbot Baseboard, and a 5-Channel sensor. Unlike others, you don't have to buy extra H-bridge motor driver or various components since the Rosbot Baseboard has in-built 2x H-bridge dual driver.
Simply connects motors to the Rosbot baseboard and it will supply more power than Arduino Uno. Cool and solid chassis that has tons of mounting holes 4. This robot is fairly easy to assemble, follow the instruction and it takes you about 15 minutes. First, attach your motors to the sides of chassis, simply plug in the rubber wheel.
Attach your Rosbot baseboard to the chassis, then the robot is ready to get wired up. In the codes, we have a state machine that indicates each possible sensor array output. The robot moves to a certain direction according to the sensor array output.
We already set up the value of Error, proportion term, integral term, and derivative term. Log in Sign up. Intermediate Full instructions provided 2 hours 29, Things used in this project. Overview One feature that most rover autonomous robots need is line following.
Line follower robot. Line follower robot Arduino. In the codes, we include a NeoPixel from Adafruit, but that's optional. Follow Contact Contact. Related channels and tags robotics. Arduino IDE.This is a control system algorithm. It is basically a feedback mechanism which can predict error by comparing an output variable with a reference value and apply a correction based on proportional, integral and derivative terms. The algorithm aims to predict and minimise error in an output variable. The algorithm is usually implemented by an electronic controller and it can be implemented in several ways in a programming language.
There are even many open-source libraries available which implement the PID algorithm. The PID algorithm is widely used in the industrial control systems like in the robotic arms and assembly lines. The PID control system can be used for a line follower as well. The typical line followers have jerky movement due to sudden nature of line detection and path correction.
By applying PID control algorithm, the line follower can be made to move smoothly along the line. This also allows the line follower to move faster and follow its path with much pace. The hardware design of the line follower is same as that of any other typical line follower robot. The robot is powered by a 12V battery and is programmed to instantly start following its path once it is powered on.
The following components will be required for designing the sensor array —. It is the Arduino board that controls the motion of the line follower. The sensor circuit as well the motor driver circuit are interfaced with the Arduino board. The electronic circuit controlling the robot has the following building blocks —.
The supply from the battery is regulated to 5V and 12V using and ICs. The pin 1 of both the voltage regulator ICs is connected to the anode of the battery and pin 2 of both ICs is connected to ground.
The respective voltage outputs are drawn from pin 3 of the respective voltage regulator ICs. Despite using 12V battery, is used to provide a regulated and stable supply to the motor driver IC. The DC motors cannot be directly connected to the battery as they can only be controlled by the motor driver IC and the motor driver IC itself need a regulated power input.
It is used frequently in robotic applications as it is small in size and packed with rich features.
Arduino Line Follower With PID and 90 Degree Turns
The board comes with built-in Arduino boot loader. The Motor drivers act as current amplifiers since they take a low-current control signal and provide a higher-current signal. This higher current signal is used to drive the motors. It has 16 pins with following pin configuration:. The DC motors are interfaced between pins 3 and 6 and pins 14 and 11 of one of the motor driver IC.
The pins 15, 2, 7 and 10 of this motor driver IC are connected to pins 5, 2, 3 and 4 of the Arduino board. The DC motor attached to right wheel is connected to pins 11 and 14 while motor attached to left wheel is connected to pins 3 and 6 of the motor driver IC.
The pins 15, 2, 7 and 10 are input signal pins of the motor driver IC. These are connected to Arduino pins. On changing digital logic at the Arduino pins, the logic at the input pins of the motor driver IC is also changed. As summarized in the tables above, the direction of rotation of the DC motors depends upon the digital logic at the input pins of the motor driver IC. Geared DC motors are available with wide range of RPM and Torque, which allow a robot to move based on the control signal it receives from the motor driver IC.
IR sensor array — The line follower is designed to follow black strips of line. For this, a sensor which can detect the colour of underneath surface is required.
7.c. Advanced Line Following with 3pi: PID Control
The reflected radiations are detected by the photodiodes. But when the IR radiation falls on a black line, it gets absorbed completely by the black colour and hence there is no reflection of the IR radiation back to the sensor module.Did you use this instructable in your classroom? Add a Teacher Note to share how you incorporated it into your lesson. Reply 15 days ago. Nice, work! I can't find the QTR8 at my country.
Reply 2 years ago. Reply 5 months ago. You can buy it from aliepress. I have bought this too. By maomarest Follow. More by the author:. This is my line follower with PID and arduino. It does 90 degree turns. I will show you how i build it.
Add Teacher Note. The conection its similar like its shown in the image. I varie the original circuit to fit with the arduino nano, so i use ports A's not D's. Its very simple, Just follow the connections of the image and thats it. I made it from a square of acrylic with a motor tool, you may use CNC or other techniques. The bot have foamy to protect the sensors from the external light.
Here you can download the complete code. I use PID derived from the theory of control. You may ajust the values of Kd, Kp, and maybe the base motor speed. Those values were found experimentally, so you may try diferent values. Attachments PIDmejor3.Well, guys this is one of the project that never gets old.
This was the first thing I did when I started learning about Arduino. UTSource is a professional electronic components supplier. Check out our free video tutorial below for a brief introduction.
Introduction to Robotics for Kids and Beginners. Here, in this video series, we will explain, everything you need to know about robotics for getting started. In this tutorial, we will discuss the working of an Arduino line following robot which will follow a black line in white background and take the correct turn whenever it reaches curves in its path.
If you are an expert and familiar with these components you can skip this section and straight away jump to the tutorial and start building Arduino Line Follower. The first thing to do is build a chassis for WiFi Robot using Arduino.
Arduino PID advance line following Robot
You can build it the way you like. You can use foam board or aluminum sheet or wood piece for building the base. These are some of the best robot chassis available for you to build this project. Check out the link below.
Get the Best Robot Chassis Online. You all might be familiar with Arduino; which is the most widely used and fastly evolving electronic platform with so many microcontroller boards and software. The Arduino UNO is the best option to get started with electronics and coding if this is your first experience with Arduino Platform.
You can use any Arduino Board for this project. As mentioned earlier, our line following robot will be following a black line in a white background.
When the IR rays hit a surface, some rays will be reflected back depending upon the color of the surface. Means, the brighter the color is, the more IR will be reflected back. Darker the color is, more IR will be absorbed by the surface and lesser IR rays will be reflected back. These reflected rays are sensed by the IR receiver and depending upon the received IR rays, the resistance of the receiver varies which will, in turn, varies the output voltage.
Thus it is possible to sense the color of the surface where the robot is running by looking into the reflected IR rays. So it is very easy to measure how bright the surface is which will make it easy for us to track the line.
There are so many cheap IR sensors available online; you can purchase any of them.Line follower
You will need at least two of them for making the line follower robot. For an ordinary Line follower robot, two IR sensors are enough. But if you are planning to take that to the next level with some advanced movements or PID Algorithm integration which I will be covering in the next chapterit would be better if your line follower gets some extra eyes. You could either add the number of individual IR Sensors, which is quite messy and power consuming, or you could buy or build an array of sensors in a single board.
This can be called as an IR Sensor Array.
Most of the array boards will be having a potentiometer for each sensor to control the sensitivity of the sensor.
Also in most cases, you will be having provision to extract digital value as well as analog values from the sensors. These analog values can be used to calculate error levels while using the PID Algorithm. H Bridge circuits are widely used in the field of robotics to switch the direction of DC motor rotation as well as for creating square waves for so many purposes. In this project, we will be using this IC to drive the motors in our line following robot.Bergerak smooth-nya robot sangat tergantung dari aksi kontrol robot tersebut, jika hanya menngunakan kontrol on-offf diskontinyu akan sangat berbeda dengan aksi kontrol kontinyu PID.
Dari formula tersebut dapat dirumuskan menjadi pen-digitalization PID dengan berbagai metode, kalo di kul dengan cara transformasi Z, ZOH, bilinier transformartion, Eulers method. Sehingga diperoleh bentuk digital diskritnya menjadi persamaan dibawah ini…. Nach…jika kita terapkan dalam bahasa pemrograman menjadi….
Nach nilai error dari pembacaan sensor ini yang dijadikan aksi perhitungan kendali PID, lalu nilai perhitungan PID tersebut dijumlahkan dengan setpoint PWM untuk dijadikan sebagai nilai aktual PWM motor dari robot line follower, berikut formula perhitungan nilai PWM kiri dan kanan dari robotku:. Untuk dapat lebih mudah memahami algoritma kendali PID robot line follower ku download diagram alir programnya disini ….
Terkait 91 responses to this post. Posted by koera on Mei 9, at am. Posted by fahmizaleeits on Juli 26, at am. Posted by mas kar on Juli 29, at pm. Posted by fahmizaleeits on September 27, at am. Posted by fahmizaleeits on Agustus 2, at pm. PID sudah tidak jaman lagi……. Posted by fahmizaleeits on Agustus 20, at am. Posted by Delphia on Mei 14, at pm. Posted by fahmizaleeits on Agustus 24, at pm. Posted by fahmizaleeits on Agustus 28, at pm.
Posted by kardono on Agustus 29, at am. Posted by fahmizaleeits on Agustus 29, at pm. Posted by fahmizaleeits on Oktober 24, at am. Posted by fahmizaleeits on Oktober 30, at pm.Thanks a lot for all votes. We will also use an Android device to easily setup the main control parameters for better and fast tuning. This project is the first of a 2 parts more complex project where my intention is to explore the potentiality of Line Follower Robots.
On the 2nd part : Maze Solver Robot, using Artificial Intelligence with Arduinothe robot will explore and solve Mazes, using simple artificial intelligence techniques. Did you use this instructable in your classroom? Add a Teacher Note to share how you incorporated it into your lesson.
For motors, 2 continuous servos SM-SR were used. They will be "glued" together making a single and solid block as you can see at the photo use the 3M Command strip, glue or double face tape. Those servos will run on a given speed, defined by the pulse width received on its data input.
For this specific servo, the pulse width goes from 1. Other servos can work with different pulse width. Once you have both servos physical connected, follow the drawing circuit above to source them external 5V or 6V and feed them with Arduino's signal:.
Once all connected, the first thing that must be done, is to send a 1. If not, the servos must be adjusted to full stop look for the yellow bolt, bellow the servo. NOTE: If your servo does not have this phisical adjustment, try to change the parameter "" microsecond inside the function up or down until you get the full stop.
An external LED is add to pin13, for signalization and test purposes you can use the internal Arduino LED, instead an external if you want, but take in consideration that will be hard to see it in the middle of the cables. Also a button is connected to pin 9.
This button is very useful for test purposes and for robot's start. Before that, the program will be stopped in the infinite loop. If necessary you must adjust the delays for the required turn angle depending of your motors also, sometimes left and right pulse values should be a little bit different to compensate any lack of balance of the motors. The Bluetooth module HC should be installed at breadboard as shown in the draw.
The Arduino library SoftSerial will be used. The code is built on a way that if you do not activate the BT, the default parameters will be the one to be used by the robot.
So, do not worry if you prefer do not install the HC module, the code still will work fine. I will leave the use of the Bluetooth and the App as an optional in case someone would like to explore more the use a Line Follower Robot for competitions, for example.
All of then are compatible. For simplicity, in the diagram I included 5 stand-alone sensors connect together. The final result are the same in both configurations. A potentiometer installed at the module see photo will adjust the correct level of light to be considered "dark" or "light".